익산출장맛사지♜예약⇔익산사가정 안마방(익산오사카 마사지)⇩(익산안마방 질내사정)♣익산하단 마사지▶익산울산 마사지▄익산머리 마사지♚익산만남 카톡▪익산영등포역 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

천안출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

익산출장맛사지☆24시출장샵▥익산사가정 안마방(익산산호동 마사지)♮(익산마사지 근육)═익산구미 모텔✥익산라오스 마사지 2차♥익산방이동 마사지☺익산오일 전신 마사지▤익산대전 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 칠곡마사지 크림 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

익산출장맛사지η출장부르는법▶익산사가정 안마방(익산조치원 마사지)✖(익산동대구역 마사지)↭익산안마방 아이돌♮익산콜걸샵▣익산강서구 마사지┼익산세종시 마사지┴익산코타키나발루 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

익산출장맛사지☢예약☣익산사가정 안마방(익산fc2 마사지)☴(익산헬로우 드림)♔익산오리역 안마방┪익산맹인 마사지┸익산출장 안마★익산국산_신작_안마방↿익산충주 안마방

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 창원출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

익산출장맛사지↠예약▐익산사가정 안마방(익산휴게텔 안마방 차이)⇣(익산상무지구 마사지)◐익산간석오거리 안마방▷익산대구 전립선 마사지↤익산출장업소┲익산신천 모텔 가격➻익산별내 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 안동괌 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

익산출장맛사지큐출장부르는법♭익산사가정 안마방(익산김해 출장 샵)的(익산손목 마사지)コ익산양산 젤리 마사지▷익산vip 마사지⇗익산안마방 도촬➼익산한물간 연예인 안마방┌익산안마방 떡

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 광주출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

익산출장맛사지익산수원역 안마방

  • 거창고시촌 안마방
  • 익산미시 마사지
  • 익산출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    익산출장맛사지♜출장부르는법┏익산사가정 안마방(익산미시 마사지)▧(익산아가씨 출장)➸익산삼송역 안마방◦익산보령 안마방♠익산행신 안마방✥익산저주파 마사지➵익산노량진 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 고령콜걸후기 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 대전출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    전주출장안마
    의성마사지황형 창원출장샵 안산천안 출장 대행
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    익산출장맛사지£예약⇄익산사가정 안마방(익산마사지나라)ψ(익산이태원 마사지)└익산안마방 장부♪익산마사지 1인샵✘익산fc2 안마방↟익산인천 서구 마사지➠익산쉼터 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 대전안마방 2:1 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    익산출장맛사지⇚24시출장샵▪익산사가정 안마방(익산천안 출장마사지)♤(익산대구 모텔 아가씨)╉익산광대뼈 축소 마사지•익산스포츠 마사지♂익산군포 마사지└익산모텔 다방ノ익산막탄 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    구리연산 안마방
    청도마사지 관리사 대전출장샵 영덕비염 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    익산출장맛사지♀예약⚘익산사가정 안마방(익산서면 마사지)◕(익산새로운 안마방 아가씨)◆익산포항 여관○익산마사지 애무⊙익산불광동 마사지☇익산논산 안마방║익산장요근 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대전출장안마 .

    익산출장맛사지☲24시출장샵♭익산사가정 안마방(익산나트랑 마사지)✄(익산안마방 도촬)⇖익산진접 안마방✁익산목포 여관┠익산대구 모텔 아가씨┓익산안마방 강남⇪익산비엔티엔 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 진주출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 울산영통 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    익산출장맛사지↶예약ノ익산사가정 안마방(익산분당 마사지)♘(익산오일 마사지 야동)♠익산영천 안마방◙익산오리역 안마방☟익산한국 마사지╤익산아주대 안마방┥익산광대 축소 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    익산출장맛사지☰예약⇘익산사가정 안마방(익산턱관절 마사지)¤(익산안마방 중독)サ익산안마방 입문⇟익산출장마사지♐익산신천 모텔♔익산중국모델 슈가φ익산태국 마사지 야동

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 김포마사지 자격증 종류 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 구미출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 횡성철구 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 구미출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    익산출장맛사지✘예약⇚익산사가정 안마방(익산아줌마 마사지)┝(익산전완근 마사지)▬익산마산 마사지↤익산영등포역 안마방█익산jav 마사지⊕익산안마방 영어⊙익산레즈 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 울산출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대구출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    익산출장맛사지↮24시출장샵ξ익산사가정 안마방(익산안마방 수원)チ(익산휴게텔 안마방)▷익산대구 마사지↽익산공항신도시 마사지►익산철구 마사지↓익산휘성 안마방☴익산여성 전신 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    횡성파주 마사지
    카지노사이트 구미전완근 마사지 xlsx.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    익산출장맛사지○예약♭익산사가정 안마방(익산안구 마사지)❤(익산출장소이스홍성)◦익산마포구청 마사지♀익산트레이너 마사지⇂익산안마방 나무ღ익산익산 모텔 가격➠익산모란 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.익산출장맛사지익산안마방 정액γ익산동탄 마사지テ(익산하노이 vip 마사지)익산동대구 모텔╁익산인계동 안마방☺익산의정부 마사지★익산안마방 단속 일베┥카지노사이트24시출장샵익산전주 모텔 추천⇀익산출장 선입금]<익산안마방 신림>익산출장전화번호↴익산양산 젤리 마사지ネ익산출장서비스☼익산오일 마사지 야동α익산출장맛사지대전천안 대딸방익산안마방 무한샷⇡익산남양주 안마방♡(익산긴장성 두통 마사지)익산신림역 안마방ス익산장요근 마사지キ익산서산시 안마방☏익산안산 조건 만남▤익산겨드랑이 마사지⇦익산후불제 출장샵┱[익산연수구 안마방]익산속초 안마방✿익산성인마사지▥익산임산부 마사지┒익산링검 마사지タ익산산본 마사지 후기╩익산철산 안마방▨『익산안마방 욕』익산거유 마사지╛익산옆광대 마사지♮익산출장 만남 대행コ익산안마방 아쿠아╁익산오리역 안마방◊익산안마방 강남♤(익산강원랜드 근처 마사지)익산안마방 텀블⊿익산중국 우한 마사지┲익산안마방 전화♐익산건전 마사지]예약장성영주 마사지예약금없는출장샵익산사당 마사지»익산인천 안마방 후기☈‹익산섹슈얼 마사지›익산출장가격▀익산야동 실제➵익산정준호 안마방┸익산크리스마스 안마방↠익산출장맛사지익산출장맛사지카지노사이트익산수유역 마사지익산마사지익산video fc2 마사지익산발바닥 마사지익산출장맛사지익산마사지 토렌트┶익산대전 모텔 다방✉﹝익산칭다오 마사지﹞익산베트남 마사지 야동⇦익산아줌마 마사지➳익산경산 사우나 마사지ⓞ익산전립선 마사지 야동▶고성발바닥 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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